Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection of the anal canal in human immunodeficiency virus HIV -positive and HIV-negative homosexual men. High incidence of anal high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions among HIV-positive and HIV-negative homosexual and bisexual men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 32 5: Influence of HIV infection, immunosuppression and human papillomavirus infection. It is considered premalignant.
Human Papillomavirus, Condylomata Acuminata, and Anal Neoplasia
International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. This cycle can be repeated, as necessary, for up to four cycles. They can examine you, confirm a diagnosis, and recommend the treatment plan that may be best for you. Unfortunately, in some patients, warts can recur many years later. Small warts that reappear are easily treated in the office.
It is rarely effective after a single application and multiple treatments require repeated visits to the office. Thus, persons with external anal warts might benefit from an inspection of the anal canal by digital examination, standard anoscopy, or high-resolution anoscopy. Your risk of acquiring the virus is higher if you have had many sexual partners and if you first had sexual intercourse at a young age. But lateral decubitus, lithotomy, and knee-chest positions all provide adequate exposure. A low-power scan shows an underlying chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and basal cell atypical hyperplasia; C: Natural interferon alfa for treatment of condylomata acuminata.
At the time of the initial screening, if the cytology is normal, it is recommended that an anal Pap smear be repeated annually for HIV-positive men, and every two to three years for HIV-negative men. After 2 years of surveillance every months the interval between examinations can be extended to 6 months for at least years further. For women who have exophytic cervical warts, a biopsy evaluation to exclude high-grade SIL must be performed before treatment is initiated. We believe this method will reduce the CA recurrence rate and protect the younger generation from anorectal cancers and the spread of infections. If recurrent or new warts are found at any time then they must be destroyed and the close surveillance resumed.